There are 18 different hemagglutinin (H) subtypes and 11 different neuraminidase (N) subtypes of influenza A virus, as well as two lineages of influenza B virus. Annual influenza epidemics are often caused by H1 and H3 subtypes. In addition, H5, H7, H9 and H10 subtypes represent a global health concern. People do not have [...]

2018-05-07T18:36:55+00:00November 2nd, 2016|


Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) causes chikungunya fever, a global infectious disease. The virus is found worldwide including Europe and the U.S.  CHIKV is transmitted to people usually by two mosquito species, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. Symptoms include arthralgia, respiratory failure, cardiovascular disease, hepatitis, and central nervous system problems, especially in the elderly and children. [...]

2018-05-07T18:38:03+00:00November 2nd, 2016|

Venezuelan equine encephalitis

Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) virus causes outbreaks in the North, Central, and South America and has spread to the southern U.S. in the past, including an outbreak in Texas in 1971. Climate, ecological changes and international travel have increased the risk of VEEV re-emergence.  Currently there is no approved vaccine or specific treatment for [...]

2018-05-07T18:38:51+00:00November 2nd, 2016|

Innovative iDNA vaccine for Chikungunya virus

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) causes outbreaks of chikungunya fever worldwide and represents an emerging pandemic threat. Prior to 2013, outbreaks had been identified in countries in Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Indian and Pacific Oceans. After 2013, transmission has also been identified in 45 countries or territories throughout the Americas with more than 1.7 million suspected [...]

2018-05-04T19:27:11+00:00March 18th, 2016|